This article contains the minimum necessary (basic) information that a person needs to start full use of the computer. In the process of studying the computer, you will have to regularly return to this document until all its instructions and terms become clear and deeply deposited in memory. If everything described here is familiar and understandable to you, then you yourself can master any material on computer topics.
A computer is an electronic device designed to store and process information and provide it in a form convenient for humans.
Information is all that a person sees, hears, feels: – text, numbers, sounds, etc.
The computer consists of:
1. The system unit.
2. The monitor.
4. Additional (peripheral) devices: mouse, printer, scanner, etc.
You can talk about a computer as hardware, or it’s also called hardware (case, monitor, keyboard, drives, etc.). Hardware, i.e. equipment in any computer is controlled by the program.
It is customary to talk about all programs as software tools.
Programs with which ordinary users work (accountants, operators, administrative personnel) are called user or application.
User programs are:
specialized (AWP – workstation)
text editors (Notepad, WordPad, MSWord)
graphic editors (Paint, PhotoShop), etc.
There are a huge number of programs:
– Operating systems (DOS, Windows, Linux, Unix);
– Service programs (Norton Commander, DrWeb);
– Programming languages (BASIC, Pascal, C, Assembler);
– Programs for working with databases (FoxPro, Access);
– Programs for computer-aided design (AutoCad, Compass);
– Programs for communication (communication) between computers;
– Programs – translators;
– Music editors;
– educational programs;
– Game programs, etc.
The main components of any computer:
1. The processor is a microcircuit of a large degree of integration.
2. The memory.
The processor performs the processing of data (information). The results of this processing are stored in memory.
The memory is divided into:
1. Operational (working).
2. Long-term: wheels. Disks are:
1. Flexible or else they are called floppy disks.
2. Hard disk (Installed inside the computer).
3. Compact disk (CD, DVD).
4. Flash drive.
The amount of memory is measured in bytes (or you can say in characters if you want to estimate the amount of text). RAM can be represented as a chain of these bytes, each of which has its own address.
A byte is a memory cell in which a number from 0 to 255 can be stored. Each of the numbers corresponds to a character.
Diskette capacity 1.44MB (megabytes – million bytes).
HD Capacity – 10MB – 500GB
CD capacity – 700Mb
DVD capacity – 4.7 GB (gigabytes – billion bytes)
Information on disks is stored as files.
A file is a data area (numbers, symbols) that is on the disk and this area is given a name.
A file name consists of a name and extension.
The extension indicates the type of file. The name is given to the file by the person, and the program assigns the extension.
Some of the extensions, and the correspondence to their file types:
- txt – text,
- doc – Word document
- xls – Excel spreadsheet;
- bmp, gif, jpg – image files,
- ppt – PowerPoint presentation files,
- wav, mp3, wma – sound files,
- avi, mpg – video images.
By the type of file, the operating system determines which program should work with it.
An image file is downloaded for viewing, sounds in the player for listening, documents for editing or viewing.
For convenience, files are grouped by a specific program or by topic and placed in folders (directories, directories).
Photos to your folder, music to your own, operating system to your own. The structure of folders and files has a tree shape: the trunk is the main (root) directory, branches are folders, leaves are files.
Files are divided into programs and data.
1. A program is a set of instructions for a processor.
2. A data file is any file that contains any data.
The file program can be executed (run for execution). Program files have the extension: com, exe, dll and some others. Data files are needed in order for programs to work with them.
Any work on the computer is almost always work with files.
Files can be:
– edit (change);
Work on any computer with any program has general rules.
The computer first turns on the peripheral devices (printer, monitor), then the system unit, if they are turned on separately. It is necessary to turn off the computer using the “Start” softkey – Shutdown. You can’t just pull the plug out of the socket or flip the switch. Modern can already be a button on the system unit. The equipment is turned off in the reverse order of inclusion.
When you turn on the computer or after rebooting, you need to follow the messages on the monitor to track the process of loading the necessary programs into the computer’s memory.
If you see strange messages on the screen, long delays or error messages, you must interrupt the work and seek help from a specialist.
1. In any program, there usually exists a MENU, the selection of items of which leads to the program performing certain functions.
2. In case of difficulty in performing something, the F1 key allows you to call for help.
3. The input of any information into the computer is confirmed by pressing the Enter key or double-clicking the left mouse button, which means that the information is prepared and needs to be processed.
4. When you enter new information (text, picture) or change the old one, the information is usually located in the RAM and its regular storage on the disk is required (otherwise it may be lost).
5. Alas, there are often cases when the computer refuses to execute commands (they say that the computer is “frozen”), to resolve this problem, the following is undertaken:
– Press the Esc key once or several times – which means refusing to perform previously specified operations.
– Then you can press the key combination Ctrl and Break or (Ctrl and C).
– If it is impossible to return to normal operation, you must press the key combination Ctrl + Alt + Delete. A task manager window will appear. Remove from execution the program that is marked as not responding.
– And the last step to return to working condition is to click the Reset button on the front of the computer. (This operation is equivalent to turning it off and on).
6. In case of difficulties in performing any operations, you cannot act at random (at random), contact the most experienced user for help.
7. Never run programs whose functions you are not familiar with.
8. Before using floppy disks or disks with which they worked on public computers or that came to you from an unknown computer, it is necessary to check them for viruses.
Text data is entered into the computer using the keyboard. The place of character entry on the screen is indicated by a blinking cursor – cursor. The cursor (pointer) can take the form of an arrow, a rectangle, text highlighted in a different color.
The keys should be pressed gently but quickly. Holding the key is perceived as quick repeated presses.
Before entering text, you must select the language of the characters you enter. It is most logical to install a program that allows you to select the input of Russian characters by pressing the “Right Shift” (Right-R) key, Latin – “Left Shift” (Left-L). But other switching methods may be used.
The keys on the keyboard are divided into character and service.
1. Symbols are for entering letters and numbers.
2. Service keys perform auxiliary functions.
Enter- Key to confirm data entry or confirm selection.
Esc – Refusal to perform something.
F1 – F12 – Function keys. Perform any function of the program.
Caps Lock – Lock the input of capital letters. (The indicator lights up when turned on)
NumLock – Toggles the numeric keypad to enter numbers or use arrows. To enter numbers, the NumLock pointer must be lit.
Arrows – Cursor keys, i.e. moving it in the right direction by one position.
Home – Moves the cursor to the beginning of a line or screen.
End – Moves the cursor to the end of a line or screen.
Page Up – Scrolls the screen up. Page Down – Scrolls the screen down.
Tab – (Tab) moves the pointer several positions.
Insert – (Ins) Insert. In all editors it changes the mode of inserting and replacing text.
BackSpace – (Left arrow) Deletes the character in front of the cursor.
Delete – Deletes the character at the cursor position.
Pressing the Insert key allows you to use the insert or replace mode. In insert mode, characters are entered in the middle of an existing line, pushing back previously entered characters. In the replacement mode, the entered characters are laid on top of the existing ones, replacing them.
– Indentation for headings and red lines must be done with the (TAB) key.
– You can move through the text using the cursor keys (insoles, PgUp, PgDown, Home, End), or place the cursor in the right place with the mouse pointer.
– To change the font of a fragment of text, this fragment must be selected (highlighted).
For highlighting with the mouse, you need to place the pointer at the beginning of the fragment, and by pressing the left button move the pointer in the direction of highlighting. Or, use the cursor keys to move the cursor to the beginning of the fragment, and press the Shift key to highlight the desired fragment with the arrow keys.
To print the created text on the printer, select the following items in the menu: File – Print and after making sure that the printer is turned on and loaded with paper, configure print options and select the OK element.
BASIS OF WORK IN WINDOWS.
The basis for the operation of the WINDOWS operating system is the window structure. The windows launch programs, view data, and all types of work with any data. The window structure is very convenient, since the following operations can be performed with windows:
– Windows can be moved anywhere on the screen by clicking the left mouse button on the window title bar and then moving it with the mouse.
– The window can resize. Click the mouse pointer at its edge or in the lower right corner and move the frame.
– The window can be closed by pressing the left key when the pointer is on the Close symbol in the upper right corner.
– The window can be expanded to full screen by pressing the left button on the Maximize icon in the upper right corner, or return it to its previous size by selecting.
– The window can be minimized by clicking on the symbol. Minimize The window is minimized to the taskbar (the list of running programs is at the bottom of the screen.) At the same time, the program continues to work and to finish working with it, you need to expand it by clicking on it with the mouse and close it.
WINDOWS is a multi-tasking system. This means that several programs can work simultaneously in it, without interfering with each other. Their list is listed on the taskbar. (bar at the very bottom of the screen). You can switch from one program to another by pressing the ALT-TAB keys or by selecting this program on the taskbar. An application in the WINDOWS environment (program) can be launched by moving the mouse pointer to the icon and double-clicking the left button. Launching can also be done by pressing the Enter key when an application is selected (its name is highlighted). The programs installed on the computer can be launched for execution by selecting from the list by clicking the <Start> button in the lower left corner of the screen. For convenience, frequently launched programs are assigned a LABEL (icon) on the “desktop” (main screen) of the Windows system. Exiting the program or closing any window is done through the menu or by pressing the ALT-F4 keys.
Well, you can start practical work. Feel free to click the Start button in the lower left corner of the screen, then select the All Programs item. It is better to start with the block of programs Standard or Games, in order to learn how to own a mouse and keyboard. If something is not clear, press F1 or call Help from the menu. A little patience and training, and you will be able to master any program, which means you can use one of the most wonderful inventions of mankind – COMPUTER.